By Edward B. Clark, W.E. Amend
This advisor describes an entire method for engaging in box hardness checking out to estimate the yield power of pipeline steels. the method is non-destructive so it truly is compatible for in-situ checking out on working pipelines, at pipe garage amenities, or numerous different destinations. It additionally enables method adaptations which are compatible for program in several events and prerequisites that could be encountered on a pipeline right-of-way and somewhere else. box hardness trying out isn't a 'one measurement suits all' technique the place a unmarried hardness checking out method is appropriate for software in all events that may be encountered
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Extra resources for Applications guide for determining the yield strength of in-service pipe by hardness evaluation : final report
However, familiarity with the background material would provide an improved understanding of the methods used and facilitate application of the methods described. 2 Background The following nomenclature is used in this section: xmin A statistic that is used as a minimum hardness value. Since the hardness values are considered to be normally distributed, this is not a true minimum; rather it is a cutoff for rare events. Specifically, it is rarely expected for values below xmin to occur by chance.
This is described as the area under normal distribution at or below a specified “cutoff” value. Figure 6 shows a standard normal distribution with the cutoff value being the right boundary of the gray colored region shown at the left tail. This value can be easily determined for (µ=0, σ =1) by using standard normal tables available in many statistics books. Cutoff values from such tables usually are denoted by zα * , where randomly drawn observations are expected to be below zα * by chance [(1- α * ) × 100]% of the time.
The pipe lengths in each homogeneous lot to be hardness tested should be randomly selected to reduce the bias that may occur if other selection methods are applied. Random sampling can be accomplished by considering the total length of each homogeneous pipe lot identified and the number of pipe lengths within the lot. A sequential number is then assigned to each pipe length. Then a list of uniform random numbers equal to the sample size from the total number of pipe lengths in the homogeneous lot is created.
Applications guide for determining the yield strength of in-service pipe by hardness evaluation : final report by Edward B. Clark, W.E. Amend