By Giancarlo Lancini, Francesco Parenti, Gian Gualberto Gallo (auth.)
In this translation of the Italian moment variation, the authors offer a entire account of the present wisdom on antibiotics. They concisely describe how a number of medical disciplines are eager about antibiotics examine, improvement, and use. Their paintings additionally discusses the economic and scientific improvement of latest antibiotics, in addition to the questions and controversies with regards to the functionality of antibiotics in nature. Antibiotics is richly illustrated with transparent chemical buildings, drawings, diagrams, and synoptical tables.
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Extra info for Antibiotics: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Isobolagrams indicating synergism or antagonism between antibiotics A and B. The points on the right of the solid curve represent the concentrations of antibiotics A and B that together inhibit the growth of the microbial strain. Those on the left represent noninhibitory concentrations. The degree of synergism or antagonism is indicated by the shape of the curve with respect to the dashed Iine, which represents the theoretical situation of simple additivity. 1. Composition of the Medium Let us take as a simple example an antibiotic that acts by inhibiting the biosynthesis of an amino acid.
This can be evaluated as follows: a culture containing a large number of bacterial cells (at least 5 x 105 /ml) is prepared, a known quantity of antibiotic added, and the culture incubated. At given time intervals, portians are taken and, after appropriate dilution, are plated on agar medium. After 48 h of incubation the colanies grown on the plates are counted and, taking into account the dilution, the number of viable cells is obtained (each viable cell is assumed to give rise to one colony).
Lg/ml and were then placed on the surface of agar seeded with S. aureus. The relationship between the logarithms of the concentrations to the diameters of the inhibition halos is shown by the straight line. An important factor influencing the halo's diameter, beside the concentration, is the absolute quantity of antibiotic present. To obtain a better accuracy in this assay, it is convenient, instead of using disks, to add measured quantities of the antibiotic solutions to small wells, dug in the agar by an appropriate punch.
Antibiotics: A Multidisciplinary Approach by Giancarlo Lancini, Francesco Parenti, Gian Gualberto Gallo (auth.)