Ageing : the paradox of life by Robin Holliday PDF

By Robin Holliday

ISBN-10: 1402056400

ISBN-13: 9781402056406

For hundreds of years humans were questioned through the inevitability of human getting older. for many of the second one 1/2 the 20 th century getting older remained a secret, or an unsolved organic challenge. on the finish of the twentieth century a awesome medical discovery emerged. It used to be no longer a unmarried discovery within the ordinary feel, since it used to be in accordance with a chain of significant interconnected insights over relatively an extended time period. those insights made it attainable for the first actual time to appreciate the organic purposes for getting older in animals and guy. it could possibly already be acknowledged, in spite of the fact that, that the numerous observations and insights that designate getting older aren't accredited as tested wisdom for a very long time. the sphere continues to be jam-packed with scientists, and non-scientists, who're simply satisfied to move on speculating concerning the 'mystery' of getting older. the purpose of this e-book is to dispel lack of awareness by means of explaining in non-technical language what are the explanations for getting older and the parable of over the top prolongation of existence.

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In these cases, the fertile adult body must be maintained in a normal healthy state for years or decades. However, there is no example of a complex animal in which the body is maintained indefinitely. Sooner or later ageing and death supercede reproduction. It has sometimes been argued that some large fish or reptiles do not age in the usual sense. These long-lived animals usually increase in size throughout their lifespan, in other words, they have pools of dividing cells that keep growing and slowly increasing body weight.

Stress proteins are the same or similar to “chaperonins” which are necessary for the correct folding of many proteins. This can be regarded as a form of protein repair. Also, there are enzymes which can remove damage, such as oxidation, in several amino acids in proteins. Another maintenance mechanism, which has only become fully apparent in the last few years, is a special process called apoptosis to get rid of unwanted cells. This is a cell suicide mechanism in which the DNA is fragmented, the cell shrinks, and is ingested by scavenging cells known as macrophages.

Such changes can occur both in cells that divide, or those that never do so. Since our genes control so many body functions, it is not surprising that DNA damage can ultimately have a multitude of different effects. Each defect or mutation may not be too serious, but as they accumulate their combined effects become greater. The organelles that that produce energy from respiration are called mitochondria. They also contain one small circular DNA molecule. This is subject to change, and particulaly deletions of different parts of the molecule.

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Ageing : the paradox of life by Robin Holliday

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