By Geckeler K.E., Nishide H. (eds.)
During this first accomplished compilation of assessment chapters in this scorching subject, greater than 30 specialists from world wide offer in-depth chapters on their particular parts of craftsmanship, protecting such crucial subject matters as:Block Copolymer structures, Nanofibers and NanotubesHelical Polymer-Based Supramolecular FilmsSynthesis of Inorganic NanotubesGold Nanoparticles and Carbon NanotubesRecent Advances in steel Nanoparticle-Attached ElectrodesOxidation Catalysis through Nanoscale Gold, Silver, and CopperConcepts in Self-AssemblyNanocompositesAmphiphilic Poly(Oxyalkylene)-AminesMesoporous AluminaNanoceramics for scientific ApplicationsEcological Toxicology of Engineered Carbon NanoparticlesMolecular ImprintingNear-Field Raman Imaging of Nanostructures and DevicesFullerene-Rich NanostructuresInteractions of Carbon Nanotubes with BiomoleculesNanoparticle-Cored Dendrimers and Hyperbranched PolymersNanostructured Organogels through Molecular Self-AssemblyStructural DNA NanotechnologyWith its assurance of all such very important parts as self-assembly, polymeric fabrics, bionanomaterials, nanotubes, photonic and environmental facets, this is often a necessary reference for fabrics scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists and biologists wishing to realize an in-depth wisdom of the entire disciplines concerned.
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4), offering a plethora of structures available to the chemist based on this template. In these cases, the phase behavior depends on two compositional variables and three relative incompatibility parameters (χAB, χAC, χBC), and thus the sequence of the components in the chain becomes important. For example, a poly(styrene-block-ethyleneblock-butadiene) BCP may have completely different phase behavior than a poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-ethylene) BCP at the same relative volume ratios. It is also possible to synthesize more than three blocks in the polymer chain – for example, a tetrablock terpolymer .
In these studies, traditional chemical ampliﬁcation strategies , which have been recognized among the photoresist community for over 20 years, were used in combination with BCP lithography. 15. The key to chemical ampliﬁcation strategies is the use of cationic catalysts known as photoacid generators (PAGs); these produce a strong acid when exposed to DUV radiation (248 and 193 nm). 9). The areas of the wafer where nanoporous templates are not needed are washed away with a solvent development step.
If less than a ±10% change in the ﬁnest feature size of the polymer is etched into the substrate, the pattern transfer step is deemed successful . This presents a huge challenge for the resist designer, who must tune the chemical components of the photoresist to satisfy two diametrically opposed requirements: to design a resist that is very responsive to ultraviolet radiation, but which, after the initial exposure, becomes highly resistant to the speciﬁc type of radiation and heat involved in the pattern transfer step.
Advanced Nanomaterials by Geckeler K.E., Nishide H. (eds.)