By Sainani G. (ed.)
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Tissue engineering has been famous as providing another strategy to whole-organ and tissue transplantation for diseased, failed, or malfunctioned organs. To reconstruct a brand new tissue through tissue engineering, the subsequent triad elements are wanted: (1) cells that are harvested and dissociated from the donor tissue; (2) biomaterials as scaffold substrates within which cells are hooked up and cultured, leading to implantation on the wanted web site of the functioning tissue; and (3) development components which advertise and/or hinder mobile adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation.
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Then the anulus and fibrous layer of the tympanic membrane is elevated either completely or partially to provide access to the areas of interest. All overhanging bony anulus is curetted and wide access to the middle ear is gained for removal of any disease. After the necessary ossicular chain work, the remaining part of the tympanic membrane is repositioned and a lateral graft is applied, and the skin of the ear canal is repositioned and packed in place. 3 Expanded Transcanal Access to the Middle Ear and Petrous Apex Although the use of the endoscope allows much more expansive transcanal access to the middle ear than does the microscope, the ear canal in some patients can be so limiting in size and angulation as not to allow for adequate exposure.
Facial Plast Surg 1988; 5: 385–388  De la Cruz A, Hansen MR. Reconstruction surgery of the ear: auditory canal and tympanum. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Harker LA, et al, eds. Oto- laryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2004: 4439–4444  Gulya AJ. Developmental anatomy of the temporal bone and skull base. In: Glasscock ME, Gulya AJ, eds. Surgery of the Ear. 5th ed. Hamilton: BC Decker: 2003  Donaldson JA. The ear: developmental anatomy. In: Donaldson JA, ed. Surgical Anatomy of The Temporal Bone.
From the developments of these folds will arise the configuration of the “Y” shaped tubular system known as the “utriculosaccular ductal system” formed by the convergence of the endolymphatic duct and the utriculosaccular endolymphatic duct. 14 - 09:10 Ear Embryology Fig. 37 The evolution of the endolymphatic (otic) labyrinth from 4 to 8 weeks. lsc, lateral semicircular canal; psc, posterior semicircular canal; ssc, superior semicircular canal. Fig. 38 The osseous labyrinth in a fetus of 18 weeks (a) and in the adult (b).
A.P.I. Textbook of Medicine by Sainani G. (ed.)