By Alan Campbell Wares
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Extra info for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism
Examples: /y/ yisavsi 'liver', iyá 'mouth', sáy 'fat', maxáy 'boy'; /w/ iwd· 'heart', xát luwé 'coyote', uv'áw 'rain', xaly'dw 'rabbit'. Maricopa has a five-vowel system like other Yuman languages. The high and mid vowels have an open pronunciation, and unstressed /a/ is phonetically shwa. In Maricopa, vowels may occur initially, medially, and finally. Examples: /i/ ito 'stomach', ipá 'arrow', xavik 'two', rú>üyk 'black', ¿'/ 'salt'; /e/ ciyér 'bird', kwés 'yellow', xpé 'metate', xamsé 'star' ; /a/ akò'y 'old woman', análv 'mesquite', imâk 'dance', avxáy 'dress', χά 'water', iyá 'mouth'; /o/ óxk 'cough', yók 'vomit', xaltót 'spider', xkó 'grandchild', maspó 'bee' ; /u/ ucé 'charcoal', uskéw 'dove', xamúk 'three', rúvk 'dry', xavsú 'blue, green', ixú 'nose'.
True consonant clusters are infrequent, and are of the type illustrated in the third paragraph above, in which they occur in word initial or word final position. In word medial position, the final consonant of one syllable may immediately precede the initial consonant of the following syllable, thus forming a kind of pseudo-cluster of two consonants. The first member of this type of medial cluster has been found to consist of a stop, spirant, nasal, liquid, or, rarely, a semi-consonant; the second member may be from any class of consonants.
Tonal phenomena may be observed on the syntactic level as well as on the lexical, as for example in ciPmiPnvé'1 'chewing gum', cu2mu*nvék3 'he chews' ; pilpd'3 'person'. ρϊ3ράΛ 'people' ; maléúlv3 'it is sweet', maHúlv1-2· 'sugar'. Like Walapai, Mohave has a variety of phonotactic patterns, the simplest being CV(·), as in 'yes'. With a preceding vowel, this becomes VCV(·), as in ihú 'nose', avé 'mouse', asé 'buzzard'; and with a preceding CV, it becomes CVCV(·), as in Jacr'· 'fish', pipá· 'person', vahó 'intestines'.
A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares